Linn Saarinen, "The Frequency of the Frequency: On Hydropower and Grid Frequency Control", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1460
Variations in the electricity consumption and production connected to the power system have to be balanced by active control. Hydropower is the most important balancing resource in the Nordic system, and will become even more important as the share of variable renewable energy sources increases. This thesis concerns balancing of active power, especially the real-time balancing called frequency control. The thesis starts in a description of the situation today, setting up models for the behaviour of hydropower units and the power system relevant to frequency control, and comparing the models with experiments on several hydropower units and on the response of the Nordic grid. It is found that backlash in the regulating mechanisms in hydropower units have a strong impact on the quality of the delivered frequency control. Then, an analysis of what can be done right now to improve frequency control and decrease its costs is made, discussing governor tuning, filters and strategies for allocation of frequency control reserves. The results show that grid frequency quality could be improved considerably by retuning of hydropower governors.[...]
Antoine Baudoin, "Cooling Strategies for Wave Power Conversion Systems", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1454
The Division for Electricity of Uppsala University is developing a wave power concept. The energy of the ocean waves is harvested with wave energy converters, consisting of one buoy and one linear generator. The units are connected in a submerged substation. The mechanical design is kept as simple as possible to ensure reliability.
The submerged substation includes power electronics and different types of electrical power components. Due to the high cost of maintenance operations at sea, the reliability of electrical systems for offshore renewable energy is a major issue in the pursuit of making the electricity production economically viable. Therefore, proper thermal management is essential to avoid the components being damaged by excessive temperature increases.[...]
Wei Li ,"Numerical Modelling and Statistical Analysis of Ocean Wave Energy Converters and Wave climates", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1447
Ocean wave energy is considered to be one of the important potential renewable energy resources for sustainable development. Various wave energy converter technologies have been proposed to harvest the energy from ocean waves. This thesis is based on the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University. The research in this thesis focuses on the foundation optimization and the power absorption optimization of the wave energy converters and on the wave climate modelling at the Lysekil wave converter test site. The foundation optimization study of the gravity-based foundation of the linear wave energy converter is based on statistical analysis of wave climate data measured at the Lysekil test site. The 25 years return extreme significant wave height and its associated mean zero-crossing period are chosen as the maximum wave for the maximum heave and surge forces evaluation.[...]
Stefan Sjökvist, "Demagnetization and Fault Simulations of Permanent Magnet Generators",Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1444,
Permanent magnets are today widely used in electrical machines of all sorts. With their increase in popularity, the amount of research has increased as well. In the wind power project at Uppsala University permanent magnet synchronous generators have been studied for over a decade. However, a tool for studying demagnetization has not been available. This Ph.D. thesis covers the development of a simulation model in a commercial finite element method software capable of studying demagnetization. Further, the model is also capable of simulating the connected electrical circuit of the generator. The simulation model has continuously been developed throughout the project. The simulation model showed good agreement compared to experiment, see paper IV, and has in paper III and V successfully been utilized in case studies. The main focus of these case studies has been different types of short-circuit faults in the electrical system of the generator, at normal or at an elevated temperature. Paper I includes a case study with the latest version of the model capable of handling multiple short-circuits events, which was not possible in earlier versions of the simulation model. The influence of the electrical system on the working point ripple of the permanent magnets was evaluated in paper II. In paper III and VI, an evaluation study of the possibility of creating a generator with an interchangeable rotor is presented. A Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) rotor was exchanged for a ferrite rotor with the electrical properties almost maintained.
Yue Hong, "Numerical Modelling and Mechanical Studies on a Point Absorber Type Wave Energy Converter", Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1443,
Oceans cover two thirds of the Earth’s surface and the energy potential of ocean waves as a renewable energy source is huge. It would therefore be a tremendous achievement if the vast mechanical energy in waves was converted into a form of energy that could be used successfully by society. For years, scientists and engineers have endeavored to exploit this renewable energy by inventing various generators designed to transform wave energy into electrical energy. Generally, this sort of generator is called a Wave Energy Converter (WEC).
In this thesis, the research is based on the WEC developed in the Lysekil Project. The Lysekil Project is led by a research group at Uppsala University and has a test site located on the west coast of Sweden. The project started in 2002. So far, more than ten prototypes of the WEC have been deployed and relevant experiments have been carried out at the test site. The WEC developed at Uppsala University can be categorized as a point absorber. It consists of a direct-drive linear generator connected to a floating buoy. The linear generator is deployed on the seabed and driven by a floating buoy to extract wave energy. The absorbed energy is converted to electricity and transmitted to a measuring station on land.[...]
Senad Apelfröjd, "Grid Connection of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Renewable Energy Systems", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1436,
Abstract: Renewable energy is harnessed from continuously replenishing natural processes. Some commonly known are sunlight, water, wind, tides, geothermal heat and various forms of biomass. The focus on renewable energy has over the past few decades intensified greatly. This thesis contributes to the research on developing renewable energy technologies, within the wind power, wave power and marine current power projects at the division of Electricity, Uppsala University. In this thesis grid connection of permanent magnet generator based renewable energy sources is evaluated.
A tap transformer based grid connection system has been constructed and experimentally evaluated for a vertical axis wind turbine. Full range variable speed operation of the turbine is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. This removes the need for a DC/DC step or an active rectifier on the generator side of the full frequency converter and thereby reduces system complexity. Experiments and simulations of the system for variable speed operation are done and efficiency and harmonic content are evaluated. [...]
Jon Olauson, "Modelling wind power for grid integration studies", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1428,
Abstract: When wind power and other intermittent renewable energy (IRE) sources begin to supply a signiﬁcant part of the load, concerns are often raised about the inherent intermittency and unpredictability of these sources. In order to study the impact from higher IRE penetration levels on the power system, integration studies are regularly performed. The model package presented and evaluated in Papers I–IV provides a comprehensive methodology for simulating realistic time series of wind generation and forecasts for such studies. The most important conclusion from these papers is that models based on coarse meteorological datasets give very accurate results, especially in combination with statistical post-processing. Advantages with our approach include a physical coupling to the weather and wind farm characteristics, over 30 year long, 5-minute resolution time series, freely and globally available input data and computational times in the order of minutes. In this thesis, I make the argument that our approach is generally preferable to using purely statistical models or linear scaling of historical measurements. . [...]
Oscar Diaz, "Numerical modelling of positive electrical discharges in long air gaps", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1389
Abstract: This dissertation deals with research on the numerical modelling of electrical discharges in laboratory long air gaps excited with positive switching impulses. It begins with the preliminary work of several scientists during the last decades, making a detailed analysis of different approaches for modelling all the stages in a full discharge. The relations between these models are identified as well as the effect on the outcome when modifying some important input parameters. The general concept describing the discharge phenomenon usually includes three main elements: the streamer inception, the streamer-to-leader transition and the stable leader propagation. These elements are present in many of the analysed models and the main differences between them are the assumptions and simplifications made by each author at a specific point in their methodologies. [...]
Valeria Castellucci, "Sea Level Compensation System for Wave Energy Converters", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214;1386
Abstract: The wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University consists of a linear generator at the seabed driven by the motion of a buoy on the water surface. The energy absorbed by the generator is negatively affected by variations of the mean sea level caused by tides, changes in barometric pressure, strong winds, and storm surges.
The work presented in this doctoral thesis aims to investigate the losses in energy absorption for the present generation wave energy converter due to the effect of sea level variations, mainly caused by tides. This goal is achieved through the modeling of the interaction between the waves and the point absorber. An estimation of the economic cost that these losses imply is also made. Moreover, solutions on how to reduce the negative effect of sea level variations are discussed. [...]
Lundin, Staffan, "Marine Current Energy Conversion", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1353
Abstract: Marine currents, i.e. water currents in oceans and rivers, constitute a large renewable energy resource. This thesis presents research done on the subject of marine current energy conversion in a broad sense. A review of the tidal energy resource in Norway is presented, with the conclusion that tidal currents ought to be an interesting option for Norway in terms of renewable energy. The design of marine current energy conversion devices is studied. It is argued that turbine and generator cannot be seen as separate entities but must be designed and optimised as a unit for a given conversion site. The influence of support structure for the turbine blades on the efficiency of the turbine is studied, leading to the conclusion that it may be better to optimise a turbine for a lower flow speed than the maximum speed at the site. The construction and development of a marine current energy experimental station in the River Dalälven at Söderfors is reported. [...]
Lejerskog, Erik, "Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Operational Wave Energy Converters", Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1339
Abstract: This thesis studies wave energy converters developed at Uppsala University. The wave energy converters are of point absorbing type with direct driven linear generators. The aim has been to study generator design with closed stator slots as well as offshore experimental studies. By closing the stator slots, the harmonic content in the magnetic flux density is reduced and as a result the cogging forces in the generator are reduced as well. By reducing these forces, the noise and vibrations from the generator can be lowered. The studies have shown a significant reduction in the cogging forces in the generator. Moreover, by closing the slots, the magnetic flux finds a short-cut through the closed slots and will lower the magnetic flux linking the windings. [...]