The latest generations of microprocessors have seen stagnant performance despite continuous downscaling of CMOS devices and high-density integration in pace with the Moore’s Law. As much as 50% of the skyrocketing energy consumption in the microprocessors goes to switching the interconnect system of rapidly growing complexity. All this calls for new thinking to contain power consumption, to improve performance and to enable higher-density integration.

In collaboration with KTH-Kista, we address the integration and power consumption issues by monolithically amalgamating tiers of device layers in a 3D format. The key components in our sequential 3D integration are germanium nanowire transistors manufactured at low temperatures (KTH), smart materials choices in combination with novel inter-tier interconnect architecture (UU), and circuit demonstration (KTH+UU).


Ion sensing represents a grand research and application field. It finds a vast variety of applications in gas sensing for domestic gases and environmental control as well as in the detection of charged species in electrolytes for chemical-biological-medical monitoring. An emerging application of the latter category is the recently demonstrated successful decoding of genetic information by genome sequencing using CMOS-based biochips.

We have been exploring entirely new electronic sensor device concepts towards single-charge detection. Our research spans from design and fabrication of new devices to nanostructured surface and to surface interaction in the electrical double layer (EDL) when operating the device in electrolytes.

Established device platforms

0-D nanopore and nanopore array sensors

1-D nanowire sensors

1-D nano-needles

Needles diameter 180 nm, height 1.7 µm, pitch 2 µm

Our sensor characterisaton lab